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Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902 – June 12, 1994), known as The Rebbe[1], was a prominent Hasidic[2] rabbi who was the seventh and final Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement. He was fifth in a direct paternal line to the third Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn.

In 1950, upon the passing of his predecessor, his father-in-law, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, Menachem Mendel assumed the leadership of Chabad-Lubavitch. He led the movement until his passing in 1994, greatly expanding its worldwide activities and founding a network of institutions, as of 2006 in 70 countries, to promote Jewish unity[3] and outreach to as-yet unaffiliated Jews through encouraging them to increase in Torah study and Mitzvah observance.

Biography

Early life

Born in Nikolaiev, Ukraine, Schneerson received mostly Jewish private education. He studied for a short while with Rabbi Zalman Vilenkin. When Schneerson was age 4-1/2, Vilenkin informed the boy's father that he had nothing more to teach his eldest son.[4]

He later studied independently under his father, Rabbi Levi Yitzchak Schneerson, an authority on Kabbalah and Jewish law[5] who served as the Rabbi of Yekaterinoslav from 1907 to 1939. He was his primary teacher. He studied Talmud and rabbinic literature, as well as the chasidic view of Jewish mysticism and Kabbalah. Schneerson's mother related that her son never attended any Soviet school, however he had taken the exams as an external student and he had done well on them[6] According to Avrum Ehrlich, at the same time that he studied extensively Jewish studies, he completed his Russian secondary school matriculation.[7]

Schneerson was involved in communal affairs of his father's office throughout his upbringing, where his secular education and knowledge of the Russian language made him a useful aid in assisting his father's public administrative work. He was also said to be an interpretor between the Jewish community and the Russian authorities on a number of occasions.[7]

He had two younger brothers, Dovber and Yisroel Aryeh Leib, both of whom were reported to be of unusual character.[7] Schneerson’s younger brother, DovBer, was mentally disturbed from childhood and spent his years in an institution for the mentally disabled near Nikolaiev. He died in 1944 at the hands of Nazi collaborators.[8]

His youngest brother Yisrael Aryeh Leib Schneerson was close to his brother, often traveling with him. He was widely viewed as a genius and studied science. In the late 1920's he became a Communist, later becoming a follower of Leon Trotsky. After he left the Soviet union he stopped being an observant Jew.[9] He changed his name to Mark Gourary and moved to Israel where he became a businessman, but later moved to England where he began doctoral studies at Liverpool University but died in 1951 before he completed them. His wife died in 1996 and his children—Schneerson's closest living relatives—currently reside in Israel.[7]

He received his rabbinical ordination from the Rogatchover Gaon, Rabbi Yosef Rosen.[10]

In 1923, Schneerson visited his second cousin twice removed, Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn for the first time. It was presumably at that time that he met Schneersohn's daughter Chaya Mushka Schneerson. It was another five years before they were able to marry.[7]

He became engaged to her in Riga in 1923 and married her five years later in 1928, after being away in Berlin. He returned to Warsaw for his wedding, and in the announcement of his marriage in a Warsaw newspaper, "a number of academic degrees" were attributed to him. Following the marriage, the newlyweds went to live in Berlin.

Berlin

Schneerson reputedly "was known to have received several advanced degrees in Berlin, and then later in Paris," but Professor Menachem Friedman was only able to uncover records for one and a half semesters in Berlin and Schneerson's attendance was in a "record of the students who audited courses at the university without receiving academic credit."

In 1931 Schneerson's younger brother, Yisroel Aryeh Leib, joined him in Berlin, traveling under false papers with the name Mark Gurari to escape the Soviets. He arrived and was cared for by the family as he was seriously ill with typhoid fever. He attended classes at the University of Berlin from 1931 to 1933. In 1933, after Adolf Hitler took over Germany and began instituting anti-Semitic policies, Schneerson helped Gurari escape from Berlin together with Regina Milgram. Gurari escaped to Mandate Palestine in 1939 with Milgram where they married.[11] Despite his secularism, the two brothers maintained a relationship there and after his move to England, and arranged for his burial in Israel on his passing in 1952.

Rabbi Soloveitchik

Rabbi Sholem Kowalsky, a close colleague of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, a former vice president of Agudas Harabonim of America, and an active member of the Rabbinical Council of America;[12] Rabbi Herschel Schacter, a former chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations;[13] Rabbi Julius Berman, the current Chairman of the RIETS Board of Trustees; Rabbi Menachem Genack, Rabbinic Administrator of the Kashrus Division of the Orthodox Union; and Rabbi Fabian Schoenfeld, former head of the Rabbinical Council of America (all students of Rabbi Soloveitchik) have all asserted that Schneerson and Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik met for the first time while they both studied in Berlin.[14] They met many times at the home of Rabbi Chaim Heller. It was in the course of these meetings that a strong friendship developed and in the words of Soloveitchik to Rabbi Sholem Kowalsky he "was a great admirer of the Rebbe."[12][14] Rabbi Soloveitchik related that:

“ Schneerson always carried the key to the mikvah with him when he attended lectures at the university. "At about two or three o'clock every afternoon when he left the university he would go straight to the mikvah. No one was aware of this custom and I only learnt about it by chance. On another occasion, I offered him a drink. He refused, but when I pressured him I understood that he was fasting that day. It was Monday and the Rebbe was fasting. Imagine a Berlin University student immersed in secular studies maintains this custom of mikvah and fasting.[15] ”

Rabbi Zvi Kaplan states that Rabbi Yitzchok Hutner recalled sitting with Schneerson and Soloveitchik at a lecture on Maimonides at the University and when the speaker asked Schneerson for his opinion on something, Schneerson deferred to Soloveitchik. Soloveitchik's daughter Dr. Atarah Twersky recalls Soloveitchik saying that Schneerson visited her father in his apartment and the former asked the latter why he was studying in Berlin if his father-in-law was opposed to it. According to Soloveitchik's son Rabbi Dr. Haym Soloveitchik, Rabbi Soloveitchik only saw Schneerson pass by in Berlin and they did not meet while there. [16] The two would become more acquainted in New York.

France

In 1933 Schneerson moved to Paris, France. He studied mechanics and electrical engineering at the École spéciale des travaux publics, du bâtiment et de l'industrie, a Technical College in the Montparnasse district. In July 1937 he graduated, and received a licence to practice as an electrical engineer. In November 1937 he enrolled at the Sorbonne, where he studied mathematics until World War II broke out in 1939.[17]

Schneerson lived for most of his time in Paris at 9 Rue de Boulard in the cosmopolitan 14th arrondissement in the same building as his wife's sister Shaina and her husband Mendel Hornstein, who was also studying at ESTP. Mendel Hornstein failed the final exams and he and his wife returned to Poland; they were killed at Treblinka, together with their infant son, on 23 September 1941. In June 1940, after Paris fell, the Schneersons fled to Vichy, and later to Nice, where they stayed until their final escape from Europe.

Schneerson learned to speak French, which he put to use in establishing his movement there after the war. The Chabad movement in France was later to attract many Jewish immigrants from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia.


America and leadership
In 1941 Schneerson escaped from France on the Serpa Pinto, one of the last boats to cross the Atlantic before the U-boat blockade began,[18] and joined his father-in-law, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York. He spent some time working in the Brooklyn Navy Yard.[19]

In 1942, his father-in-law appointed him director of the movement's central organizations, placing him at the helm of a building a Jewish educational network across the United States, but he kept a low public religious leadership profile within the movement, emerging only once a month to deliver public talks to his father-in-law's followers.[7]

Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn died in 1950.

The two candidates for leadership were: Schneerson and Rabbi Shemaryahu Gurary, Schneersohn's elder son-in-law. Schneerson actively refused to accept leadership of the movement for the entire year after Schneersohn's passing. Schneerson had a larger following and seemed more sincere than Gurary. Schneerson was eventually cajoled into accepting the post by his wife and followers.[20]

On the anniversary of his father-in-law's passing, on the tenth of Shevat 1951, he delivered a Chassidic discourse (Ma'amar) and formally became the Rebbe.[21]

Schneerson believed that the American public was seeking to learn more about their Jewish heritage. He stated, "America is not lost, you are not different from. You Americans sincerely crave to know, to learn. Americans are inquisitive. It is the Chabad's point of view that the American mind is simple, honest, direct-good, tillable soil for Hassidism, or just plain Judaism".[22] Schneerson believed that Jews need not to be on the defensive, rather the Jews need to be on the ground building Jewish institutions, day schools and synagogues. Schneerson said that we need "to discharge ourselves of our duty and we must take the initiative".[23]

Schneerson placed a tremendous emphasis on outreach. Schneerson made great efforts to intensify this program of the movement, bringing Jews from all walks of life to adopt Orthodox Judaism, and aggressively sought the expansion of the baal teshuva movement.


Activities
The most famous part of Schneerson's work included the training of thousands of young Chabad rabbis and their wives, who were sent all over the world by him as shluchim (English: "emissaries") to further Jewish observance.

Schneerson oversaw the building of schools, community centers, youth camps, college campus centers (known as "Chabad houses"), and build connections to the most powerful Jewish lay leaders and non-Jewish government leaders wherever they found themselves.

Schneerson instituted a system of "mitzvah campaigns" called mivtzoim; these encourage Jews to increase their level of Jewish religious practice, and gives the opportunity for another Jew to do a mitzvah. They commonly centered on practices such as keeping kosher, lighting Shabbat candles, studying Torah, the laying of tefillin, helping write Torah scrolls and teaching women to observe the niddah laws of Jewish family purity (laws pertaining to menstruation and ritual immersion afterwards in a pool of water known as a mikveh). Lubavitchers went to street-corners, and rode in "Mitzvah tanks", mobile outreach centers, encouraging Jews to increase their religious observance. He also launched a global Noahide campaign to promote observance of the Noahide Laws among gentiles, saying that involvement in this campaign is an obligation for every Jew.[24]

Schneerson's activities spread to many far-flung areas of the world. Since the time of the fifth Rebbe of Chabad, Sholom Dovber Schneersohn, who sent an emissary to the Mountain Jews, Chabad had been involved with the Sephardic world. Many senior rabbis visited him in Brooklyn or maintained a correspondence with him. In the late 1970s, Rabbi Schneerson joined with other organizations to orchestrate an exodus of Jews from countries such as Iran.

Scientists who met with him, such as Herman Branover, professor of physics at Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, Israel, noted that he had a keen understanding of scientific issues.[citation needed]

Schneerson rarely chose to involve himself with questions of halakha (Jewish law). Some notable exceptions were with regard to the use of electrical appliances on the Sabbath, sailing on Israeli boats staffed by Jews, and halakhic dilemmas created when crossing the International Date Line.

Schneerson rarely left Crown Heights in Brooklyn, except for frequent lengthy visits to his father-in-law's grave-site in Queens, New York. A year after the passing of his wife in 1988, when the traditional year of Jewish mourning had passed, he moved into his study above the central Lubavitch synagogue at 770 Eastern Parkway.

It was from this synagogue that Rabbi Schneerson directed his emissaries' work. He would involve himself in details of his far-flung movement's developments. The highlight of his public role was displayed during special celebrations called farbrengens ("gatherings") on Sabbaths, Jewish holy days, and special days on the Chabad calendar, when he would give lengthy sermons to crowds. They would often be broadcast via satellite and cable television to Lubavitch branches all over the world.

Schneerson's devotion to his work was unceasing: "He had never taken even a single day's vacation. Aside from three day trips in the late 1950s to visit a Chabad children's camp in the Catskill mountains, he had not once left the New York City vicinity since 1951. Nor had he the slightest predilection for acquiring material possessions. He and Chaya lived modestly in their house near Eastern Parkway."[25]


Later life

In 1977 Schneerson suffered a massive heart attack while celebrating the hakafot ("circling" [in the synagogue]) ceremony on Shmini Atzeret. Despite the best efforts of his doctors to convince him to change his mind, he refused to be hospitalized.[26] This necessitated building a mini-hospital in "770." Although he did not appear in public for many weeks, he continued to deliver talks and discourses from his study via intercom. On Rosh Chodesh Kislev, the first day of the Hebrew month of Kislev, he left his study for the first time in over a month to go home. His followers celebrate this day as a holiday each year.

In 1983, on the occasion of his 80th birthday the U.S. Congress proclaimed Rabbi Schneerson's birthday Education Day, USA, and awarded him the National Scroll of honor.

As the movement grew and more demands were placed on Schneerson's time he limited the practice of meeting followers individually in his office. In 1986 Rabbi Schneerson replaced these personal meetings, known as Yechidut, with a weekly receiving line in "770". Almost every Sunday thousands of people would line up to meet briefly with Schneerson and receive a dollar, which was to be donated to charity. People filing past Schneerson would often take this opportunity to ask him for advice or to request a blessing. This event is usually referred to as "Sunday Dollars."[27]

Following the death of Schneerson's wife in 1988 he withdrew from some public functions; for example, he stopped delivering addresses during weekdays, instead holding gatherings every Shabbat.[28] He later edited these addresses and they have since been released in the Sefer HaSichos set.

In 1991, he declared to his followers: "I have done everything I can (to bring Moshiach (the Jewish Messiah)), now I am handing over to you (the mission); do everything you can to bring Moshiach!" A campaign was then started to bring the messianic age through "acts of goodness and kindness," and some of his followers placed advertising in the mass media, such as many full-page ads in the New York Times urging everyone to prepare for and hasten the messiah's imminent arrival by increasing in their good deeds.

In 1991, Schneerson faced a riot with anti-Semitic overtones in his neighborhood of Crown Heights which became known as the Crown Heights Riot of 1991. The riot began when a car accompanying his motorcade returning from one of his regular cemetery visits to his father-in-law's grave accidentally struck two African American seven-year-old children, killing one boy. In the rioting, Australian Jewish graduate student Yankel Rosenbaum was murdered, many Lubavitchers were badly beaten, and much property was destroyed; also, blacks hurled rocks and bottles at the Jews over police lines.[29]

In 1992 Schneerson was felled by a serious stroke while praying at the Ohel, the grave of his father-in-law. The stroke left him unable to speak and paralyzed on the right side of his body. Nonetheless, he continued to respond daily to thousands of queries and requests for blessings from around the world. His secretaries would read the letters to him and he would indicate his response with head and hand motions.

Despite his deteriorating health, Schneerson once again refused to leave 770. Several months into his illness, a small room with tinted glass windows with an attached balcony was built overlooking the main synagogue. This allowed him to pray with his followers, beginning with the Rosh Hashana services and after services, to appear before them by either having the window opened or by being carried onto the balcony.

He died in 1994 at the Beth Israel Medical Center,[30] having finally agreed to hospitalization, unable to verbalize and say anything to confirm or deny his followers' longed-for dream that he be the actual long-promised Jewish Messiah. However, some believe that he will be the Messiah, and that he will lead the Jewish people to redemption, though this opinion is not shared by the vast majority of his followers (see Chabad messianism.)

After his death, a bill was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives sponsored by Congressmen Chuck Schumer, and cosponsored by John Lewis, Newt Gingrich, and Jerry Lewis, as well as 220 other Congressmen, to bestow on Rabbi Schneerson the Congressional Gold Medal. On November 2, 1994, the bill passed both Houses by unanimous consent, honoring Rabbi Schneerson for his "outstanding and enduring contributions toward world education, morality, and acts of charity".[31] Bill Clinton spoke these words at the Congressional Gold Medal ceremony

“ The late Rebbe's eminence as a moral leader for our country was recognized by every president since Richard Nixon. For over two decades the Rabbi's movement now has some 2000 institutions; educational, social, medical, all across the globe. We, (The United States Government) recognize the profound role that Rabbi Schneerson had in the expansion of those institutions. ”

The United States Congress and President issue annual proclamations declaring that Schneerson's birthday, usually a day in March or April that coincides with his Hebrew calendar birth-date of 11 Nisan (a Hebrew month), be observed as Education and Sharing Day in the United States[32]

Schneerson was laid to rest on the 3rd of Tammuz 5754 (June 12, 1994), next to his father-in-law, the sixth Rebbe, at Montefiore Cemetery in Queens, NY.[33] The Ohel is built over their graves. When entering the Ohel, the sixth Rebbe is buried to the right, and the seventh Rebbe is buried to the left. Established by philanthropist Rabbi Joseph Gutnick of Melbourne (Australia), the Ohel Chabad-Lubavitch Center on Francis Lewis Boulevard, Queens, NY is located adjacent to the Rebbes' Ohel.


Wills
There is considerable controversy within Chabad about Schneerson's will. Some speculate that two wills exist. Family and supporters of Rabbi Yehuda Krinsky claim that there exists a will signed by Schneerson which transfers stewardship of all the major Chabad institutions to Rabbi Yehuda Krinsky.[34] Others argue that there is no proof of such a will, and request that this will be made public if it is to be accepted. The second will, the rumor goes, gave the bulk of control to three senior Chabad rabbis, Rabbis Mindel, Piekarski, and Hodakov (contemporary and secretary of Schneerson) and gave Krinsky only a minor role. The only copy of this will, that was drafted by others, is unsigned.

The first will, signed and dated February 14, 1988, transferred power over all Schneerson’s property and personal affects to Agudas Chasidei Chabad (AGUCH), naming Krinsky as sole executor.[34] Avrum Erlich, a Chabad chronicler and scholar summarises the dispute:

“ After the [second] will was prepared, Schneerson said he would look it over before signing it, and that is apparently the last that was seen of it. Some Habad members believe that Schneerson never signed this will. . . others believe that even if the will was not signed, it is nevertheless indicative of his general view. There are still others who believe that a signed copy of the will exists, but was stolen from Schneerson’s drawer and hidden by an interested party who hopes to gain by its destruction.[34] ”

Succession

Chabad Hasidim believe that there is no successor to Schneerson and all the suggested successors declined the mantle of leadership in the days after his death. Chabad hasidim believe that he is still their leader, guiding them from beyond the grave through prayer and signs. There are those who believe that he will return as the Messiah; this view has led to controversy with other Orthodox groups and within Chabad itself. Some, quoting Talmudic passages and statements that Schneerson himself made, refuse to put the typical honorifics that Jews normally use for the dead after his name.

Since the early 1950s some followers have been claiming that Schneerson was the Messiah. Even after his death, there are Chabad adherents who continue to argue that Schneerson is to return as the Messiah. Chabad Messianism based around Schneerson has been a major cause of fracture within the Chabad movement since his death.

Furthermore, some followers believe that he is able to influence the decisions of his followers even after death and this is made most clear by the practice known as "Igrot Kodesh", by which answers to questions are derived through mystical consultation of the published collections of Schneerson’s letters known as the Igrot Kodesh.[35]


Political activities

United States
In general it is Chabad Lubavitch policy not to mix in to any politics, however aspirants for the job of mayor, governor, congressman, senator, in the states of New York and New Jersey would come calling and have their pictures with the rebbe published in newspapers with large Jewish readerships and voters. [citation needed]

Schneerson predicted, paid close attention to and rejoiced in the fall of communism in Eastern Europe starting in 1989. Under the Bolsheviks his father-in-law had been imprisoned and tortured and had his massive collection of writings confiscated, and the movement banned on pain of exile to Siberia. So too his father Rabbi Levi Yitzchock Schneerson was imprisoned and sent to live in exile in Alma Ata. His father was never freed and died in Alma Ata. Throughout the years of Communist repression of religion, Schneerson maintained intensive contacts with an underground network of his followers in the Soviet Union.[citation needed] Once the Iron Curtain fell, he quickly sent hundreds of new emissaries, known as shluchim, to the former Soviet Union.[citation needed]


Israel
Schneerson never visited the State of Israel, where he had many admirers and critics. He held a view that according to Jewish law, it was uncertain if a Jewish person who was in the land of Israel was allowed to leave.[citation needed] One of Israel's presidents, Zalman Shazar, who was of Chabad ancestry, and his visits to Rabbi Schneerson were cordial. Menachem Begin, Ariel Sharon, and later Benjamin Netanyahu also paid visits and sought advice, along with other less famous politicians, diplomats, military officials, and media producers. In the elections that brought Yitzhak Shamir to power, Schneerson publicly lobbied his followers and the Orthodox members in the Knesset to vote against the Labor alignment. It attracted the media's attention and led to articles in Time, Newsweek, and many newspapers and TV programs, and led to considerable controversy within Israeli politics.

During the Six Day War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War of 1973, Schneerson publicly called for Israel Defence Forces (IDF) to capture Damascus, Syria and Cairo, Egypt. He was vehemently opposed to any IDF withdrawals from captured territories and opposed any concessions to Arabs.[citation needed] He lobbied Israeli politicians to pass legislation in accordance with Jewish religious law on the question Who is a Jew and declare that "only one who is born of a Jewish mother or converted according to Halakha is Jewish." This caused a furor in the United States. Some American Jewish philanthropies stopped financially supporting Chabad-Lubavitch since most of their members were connected to Reform and Conservative Judaism. These unpopular ideas were toned down by his aides according to Avrum Erlich. "The issue was eventually quietened so as to protect Habad fundraising interests. Controversial issues such as territorial compromise in Israel that might have estranged benefactors from giving much-needed funds to Habad, were often moderated, particularly by. . . Krinsky."[36] Rabbi Immanuel Jakobovits argued that Habad moderated its presentation of anti-Zionist ideology and right-wing politics in England and downplayed its messianic fervor so as not to antagonize large parts of the English Jewish community.[36]


Scholarship
Schneerson is known for delivering regular lengthy addresses at packed public gatherings touching on all areas of Torah, without using any notes. These talks usually centered around the weekly Torah portion, and were then transcribed and distributed widely. Many of them were later edited by him and distributed worldwide in small booklets later to be compiled in the monumental Likkutei Sichot set. (See choizer, meiniach.) He also authored a voluminous collection of replies to requests and questions both from followers and from non-followers. They touch on a wide array of topics. The majority of his correspondence is printed in Igrot Kodesh (Hebrew and Yiddish) and Letters from the Rebbe (English). His commentaries fill more than two hundred published volumes.[19]

In biblical scholarship he was known for his achievements on the study of Rashi. He frequently used Rashi's commentary in his discourses.[37] In halachic matters he normally deferred to members of the Crown Heights Beit Din headed by Rabbi Zalman Shimon Dvorkin, and advised the movement to do likewise in the event of his death.[38]


References
^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Second Edition, Volume 18 page 149
^ About Chabad-Lubavitch
^ National Geographic Magazine February 2006
^ Chana Vilenkin, Zalman's daughter on "The Early Years Vol I". Jewish Educational Media 2006, segment Nikolaev, Russia 1902. (UPC 874780 000525)
^ Introduction Lekutei Levi Yitzchak Kehot Publications 1970
^ Schneerson, Chana, A Mother in Israel Kehot Publications 1983 (ISBN 08266-00999)page 13.
^ a b c d e f Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 4
^ Larger Than Life, Deutsch, S. S., vol. 2, pp. 125–145.
^ Larger Than Life, Deutsch, S. S., vol. 1, pp. 101–103, and vol. 2, p. 118
^ Selegson, Michoel A. Introduction to From Day to Day, English translation of the Hayom Yom (ISBN 08266-06695), Page A20.
^ (ISBN 0-9647243-0-8) Vol. II, p.134)
^ a b Kowalsky, Sholem B.. The Rebbe and the Rav. Chabad.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
^ A Relationship from Berlin to New York (Windows Media Video) [Documentary]. Brooklyn, NY: Chabad.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
^ a b The Rebbe in Berlin, Germany (Windows Media Video) [Documentary]. Brooklyn, NY: Chabad.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
^ Kowalsky, Sholem B. From My Zaidy's House. Israel Book Shop, 2003 (ISBN 097023600X) page 274.
^ "Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik and Abraham Joshua Heschel on Jewish-Christian Relations" by Rabbi Reuven Kimelman
^ My Encounter with the Rebbe: The Early Years III (1938-1940), Jewish Educational Media, 2007
^ Last Sea Route From Lisbon to U.S. Stops Ticket Sale to Refugees, New York Times, March 15, 1941
^ a b Fishkoff, Sue. The Rebbe's Army, Schoken, 2003 (08052 11381). Page 73. Milton Fechtor, Wiring the Missouri, Jewish Educational Media.
^ Leadership in the HaBaD Movement, Avrum M. Ehrlich, Jason Aronson, January 6, 2000, ISBN 076576055X
^ Shevat 10: A Day of Two Rebbes
^ Raddock, Charles, The Jewish Forum, April, 1951
^ Kranzler, Gershon, Jewish Life, Sept.-Oct. 1951.
^ http://www.sichosinenglish.org/essays/01.htm
^ Hoffman 1991, p. 45
^ Hoffman 1991, p. 46
^ Hoffman 1991, p. 47
^ Cheshbono Shel Olam, Binyomin Lipkin (Machon HaSefer, Israel, 2000) p. 79
^ Hasid Dies in Stabbing; Black Protests Flare 2d Night in a Row By JOHN KIFNER New York Times (1857-Current file); Aug 21, 1991; ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2003)pg. B1
^ The New York Times, June 13, 1994, p. A1
^ [1] Public Law 103-457
^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/04/20030411-2.html "Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., 2003" by George W. Bush
^ http://www.findagrave.com/php/famous.php?page=cem&FScemeteryid=65292
^ Cite error 8; No text given.
^ Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 18, note 14
^ a b Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 14 notes
^ Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 8
^ Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 15 (also see note 10 Ibid.)
Hoffman, Edward (1991). Despite all odds: the story of Lubavitch. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. LCCN 90-10115. ISBN 0671677039. OCLC 22113189.
Ehrlich, Avrum M. (2004). The Messiah of Brooklyn: understanding Lubavitch Hasidism past and present. Jersey City, NJ: KTAV Publishing. LCCN 2004-14552. ISBN 0881258369. OCLC 55800922.

Books by Rabbi Schneerson
Rabbi Schneerson himself wrote and published only three books:

Hayom Yom - An anthology of Chabad aphorisms and customs arranged according to the days of the year.
Haggadah Im Likkutei Taamim Uminhagim - The Haggadah with a commentary written by Schneerson.
Sefer HaToldot - Admur Moharash - Biography of the fourth Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Shmuel Schneersohn.
His personal notes and writings:

Reshimot - 10 volume set of Schneerson's personal journal discovered after his passing. Includes notes for his public talks before 1950, letters to Jewish scholars, notes on the Tanya, and thoughts on a wide range of Jewish subjects.(2,190pp)
His talks and letters, transcribed by others and then edited by him:

Likkutei Sichos - 39 volume set of Schneerson's discourses on the weekly Torah portions, Jewish Holidays, and other issues. (16,867pp)
Igrot Kodesh - 28 volume set of Schneerson's Hebrew and Yiddish letters. (11,948pp)
Hadran al HaRambam - Commentary on Mishneh Torah.
Sefer HaSichot - 10 volume set of the Schneerson's talks from 1987-1992. (4,136pp)
Sefer HaMa'amarim Melukot - 6 volumes of edited chassidic discourses.
Letters from the Rebbe - 5 volume set of Schneerson's English letters.
Chidushim UBiurim B'Shas - 3 volumes of novellae on the Talmud.
Unedited compilations of his talks and writings:

Sefer HaShlichut - 2 volume set of Schneerson's advice and guidelines to the shluchim he sent.
Torat Menachem - 34 volume Hebrew set of unedited Maamarim and Sichos currently spanning 1950-1962 (Approximately 4 new volumes a year). Planned to encompass 1950-1981.
Sichot Kodesh - 60 some volume Yiddish set of unedited Sichos from 1950-1981.
Torat Menachem Hitva'aduyot - 43 volume set of Sichos and Maamarim from 1982-1992. (Based on participants' recollections and notes, not proofread by Rabbi Schneerson.)
Sefer HaMa'amarim (unedited) chassidic discourses - Approx. 24 vols. including 1951-1962, 1969-1977 with plans to fill the rest.
Biurim LePirush Rashi - 5 volume set summarizing his talks on the commentary of Rashi to Torah.
Heichal Menachem - Shaarei - 34 volumes of a continuing series of his talks arranged by topic and holiday.
Toras Menachem - Tiferes Levi Yitzchok - 3 volumes of elucidations drawn from his talks on cryptic notes of his father.
Biurim LePirkei Avot - 2 volumes summarizing his talks on the Tractate of the Mishna "Ethics of our Fathers".
Yein Malchut - 2 volumes of talks on the Mishneh Torah.
Kol Ba'ei Olam - Discources and letters concerning the Noahide Campaign.
Hilchot Beit Habechira L`haRambam Im Chiddushim U`Beurim - Talks on the Laws of the Chosen House (The Holy Temple) of the Mishneh Torah.
HaMelech B'Msibo - 2 volumes of his discussions at the semi-public Holiday meals.
Toras Menachem - Menachem Tzion - 2 volumes of talks on mourning.
Collections and esoterica:

Heichal Menachem - 3 volumes.
Mikdash Melech - 4 volumes.
Nelcha B'Orchosov
Mekadesh Yisrael - Talks and pictures from his officiating at weddings.
Yemei B'Reshit - Diary of the first year of his leadership, 1950-1951.
Bine'os Deshe - Diary of his visit and talks to Camp Gan Israel in upstate New York.
Esoterica continues to be released by individual families for family occasions such as weddings.


See also
Education and Sharing day
Chabad

 

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