Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902 – June 12, 1994), known as The
Rebbe, was a prominent Hasidic rabbi who was the seventh and
final Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement.
He was fifth in a direct paternal line to the third Chabad-Lubavitch
Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn.
In 1950, upon the passing of his
predecessor, his father-in-law, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn,
Menachem Mendel assumed the leadership of Chabad-Lubavitch. He led
the movement until his passing in 1994, greatly expanding its worldwide
activities and founding a network of institutions, as of 2006 in
70 countries, to promote Jewish unity and outreach to as-yet
unaffiliated Jews through encouraging them to increase in Torah
study and Mitzvah observance.
Born in Nikolaiev, Ukraine, Schneerson
received mostly Jewish private education. He studied for a short
while with Rabbi Zalman Vilenkin. When Schneerson was age 4-1/2,
Vilenkin informed the boy's father that he had nothing more to teach
his eldest son.
He later studied independently under
his father, Rabbi Levi Yitzchak Schneerson, an authority on Kabbalah
and Jewish law who served as the Rabbi of Yekaterinoslav from
1907 to 1939. He was his primary teacher. He studied Talmud and
rabbinic literature, as well as the chasidic view of Jewish mysticism
and Kabbalah. Schneerson's mother related that her son never attended
any Soviet school, however he had taken the exams as an external
student and he had done well on them According to Avrum Ehrlich,
at the same time that he studied extensively Jewish studies, he
completed his Russian secondary school matriculation.
Schneerson was involved in communal
affairs of his father's office throughout his upbringing, where
his secular education and knowledge of the Russian language made
him a useful aid in assisting his father's public administrative
work. He was also said to be an interpretor between the Jewish community
and the Russian authorities on a number of occasions.
He had two younger brothers, Dovber
and Yisroel Aryeh Leib, both of whom were reported to be of unusual
character. Schneerson’s younger brother, DovBer, was mentally
disturbed from childhood and spent his years in an institution for
the mentally disabled near Nikolaiev. He died in 1944 at the hands
of Nazi collaborators.
His youngest brother Yisrael Aryeh
Leib Schneerson was close to his brother, often traveling with him.
He was widely viewed as a genius and studied science. In the late
1920's he became a Communist, later becoming a follower of Leon
Trotsky. After he left the Soviet union he stopped being an observant
Jew. He changed his name to Mark Gourary and moved to Israel
where he became a businessman, but later moved to England where
he began doctoral studies at Liverpool University but died in 1951
before he completed them. His wife died in 1996 and his children—Schneerson's
closest living relatives—currently reside in Israel.
He received his rabbinical ordination
from the Rogatchover Gaon, Rabbi Yosef Rosen.
In 1923, Schneerson visited his second
cousin twice removed, Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn for the first time.
It was presumably at that time that he met Schneersohn's daughter
Chaya Mushka Schneerson. It was another five years before they were
able to marry.
He became engaged to her in Riga
in 1923 and married her five years later in 1928, after being away
in Berlin. He returned to Warsaw for his wedding, and in the announcement
of his marriage in a Warsaw newspaper, "a number of academic
degrees" were attributed to him. Following the marriage, the
newlyweds went to live in Berlin.
Schneerson reputedly "was known
to have received several advanced degrees in Berlin, and then later
in Paris," but Professor Menachem Friedman was only able to
uncover records for one and a half semesters in Berlin and Schneerson's
attendance was in a "record of the students who audited courses
at the university without receiving academic credit."
In 1931 Schneerson's younger brother,
Yisroel Aryeh Leib, joined him in Berlin, traveling under false
papers with the name Mark Gurari to escape the Soviets. He arrived
and was cared for by the family as he was seriously ill with typhoid
fever. He attended classes at the University of Berlin from 1931
to 1933. In 1933, after Adolf Hitler took over Germany and began
instituting anti-Semitic policies, Schneerson helped Gurari escape
from Berlin together with Regina Milgram. Gurari escaped to Mandate
Palestine in 1939 with Milgram where they married. Despite his
secularism, the two brothers maintained a relationship there and
after his move to England, and arranged for his burial in Israel
on his passing in 1952.
Rabbi Sholem Kowalsky, a close colleague
of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, a former vice president of Agudas
Harabonim of America, and an active member of the Rabbinical Council
of America; Rabbi Herschel Schacter, a former chairman of the
Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations;
Rabbi Julius Berman, the current Chairman of the RIETS Board of
Trustees; Rabbi Menachem Genack, Rabbinic Administrator of the Kashrus
Division of the Orthodox Union; and Rabbi Fabian Schoenfeld, former
head of the Rabbinical Council of America (all students of Rabbi
Soloveitchik) have all asserted that Schneerson and Rabbi Joseph
B. Soloveitchik met for the first time while they both studied in
Berlin. They met many times at the home of Rabbi Chaim Heller.
It was in the course of these meetings that a strong friendship
developed and in the words of Soloveitchik to Rabbi Sholem Kowalsky
he "was a great admirer of the Rebbe." Rabbi Soloveitchik
“ Schneerson always carried the key
to the mikvah with him when he attended lectures at the university.
"At about two or three o'clock every afternoon when he left
the university he would go straight to the mikvah. No one was aware
of this custom and I only learnt about it by chance. On another
occasion, I offered him a drink. He refused, but when I pressured
him I understood that he was fasting that day. It was Monday and
the Rebbe was fasting. Imagine a Berlin University student immersed
in secular studies maintains this custom of mikvah and fasting.
Rabbi Zvi Kaplan states that Rabbi
Yitzchok Hutner recalled sitting with Schneerson and Soloveitchik
at a lecture on Maimonides at the University and when the speaker
asked Schneerson for his opinion on something, Schneerson deferred
to Soloveitchik. Soloveitchik's daughter Dr. Atarah Twersky recalls
Soloveitchik saying that Schneerson visited her father in his apartment
and the former asked the latter why he was studying in Berlin if
his father-in-law was opposed to it. According to Soloveitchik's
son Rabbi Dr. Haym Soloveitchik, Rabbi Soloveitchik only saw Schneerson
pass by in Berlin and they did not meet while there.  The two
would become more acquainted in New York.
In 1933 Schneerson moved to Paris,
France. He studied mechanics and electrical engineering at the École
spéciale des travaux publics, du bâtiment et de l'industrie,
a Technical College in the Montparnasse district. In July 1937 he
graduated, and received a licence to practice as an electrical engineer.
In November 1937 he enrolled at the Sorbonne, where he studied mathematics
until World War II broke out in 1939.
Schneerson lived for most of his
time in Paris at 9 Rue de Boulard in the cosmopolitan 14th arrondissement
in the same building as his wife's sister Shaina and her husband
Mendel Hornstein, who was also studying at ESTP. Mendel Hornstein
failed the final exams and he and his wife returned to Poland; they
were killed at Treblinka, together with their infant son, on 23
September 1941. In June 1940, after Paris fell, the Schneersons
fled to Vichy, and later to Nice, where they stayed until their
final escape from Europe.
Schneerson learned to speak French,
which he put to use in establishing his movement there after the
war. The Chabad movement in France was later to attract many Jewish
immigrants from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia.
America and leadership
In 1941 Schneerson escaped from France on the Serpa Pinto, one of
the last boats to cross the Atlantic before the U-boat blockade
began, and joined his father-in-law, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn,
in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York. He spent some
time working in the Brooklyn Navy Yard.
In 1942, his father-in-law appointed
him director of the movement's central organizations, placing him
at the helm of a building a Jewish educational network across the
United States, but he kept a low public religious leadership profile
within the movement, emerging only once a month to deliver public
talks to his father-in-law's followers.
Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn died in
The two candidates for leadership
were: Schneerson and Rabbi Shemaryahu Gurary, Schneersohn's elder
son-in-law. Schneerson actively refused to accept leadership of
the movement for the entire year after Schneersohn's passing. Schneerson
had a larger following and seemed more sincere than Gurary. Schneerson
was eventually cajoled into accepting the post by his wife and followers.
On the anniversary of his father-in-law's
passing, on the tenth of Shevat 1951, he delivered a Chassidic discourse
(Ma'amar) and formally became the Rebbe.
Schneerson believed that the American
public was seeking to learn more about their Jewish heritage. He
stated, "America is not lost, you are not different from. You
Americans sincerely crave to know, to learn. Americans are inquisitive.
It is the Chabad's point of view that the American mind is simple,
honest, direct-good, tillable soil for Hassidism, or just plain
Judaism". Schneerson believed that Jews need not to be
on the defensive, rather the Jews need to be on the ground building
Jewish institutions, day schools and synagogues. Schneerson said
that we need "to discharge ourselves of our duty and we must
take the initiative".
Schneerson placed a tremendous emphasis
on outreach. Schneerson made great efforts to intensify this program
of the movement, bringing Jews from all walks of life to adopt Orthodox
Judaism, and aggressively sought the expansion of the baal teshuva
The most famous part of Schneerson's work included the training
of thousands of young Chabad rabbis and their wives, who were sent
all over the world by him as shluchim (English: "emissaries")
to further Jewish observance.
Schneerson oversaw the building of
schools, community centers, youth camps, college campus centers
(known as "Chabad houses"), and build connections to the
most powerful Jewish lay leaders and non-Jewish government leaders
wherever they found themselves.
Schneerson instituted a system of
"mitzvah campaigns" called mivtzoim; these encourage Jews
to increase their level of Jewish religious practice, and gives
the opportunity for another Jew to do a mitzvah. They commonly centered
on practices such as keeping kosher, lighting Shabbat candles, studying
Torah, the laying of tefillin, helping write Torah scrolls and teaching
women to observe the niddah laws of Jewish family purity (laws pertaining
to menstruation and ritual immersion afterwards in a pool of water
known as a mikveh). Lubavitchers went to street-corners, and rode
in "Mitzvah tanks", mobile outreach centers, encouraging
Jews to increase their religious observance. He also launched a
global Noahide campaign to promote observance of the Noahide Laws
among gentiles, saying that involvement in this campaign is an obligation
for every Jew.
Schneerson's activities spread to
many far-flung areas of the world. Since the time of the fifth Rebbe
of Chabad, Sholom Dovber Schneersohn, who sent an emissary to the
Mountain Jews, Chabad had been involved with the Sephardic world.
Many senior rabbis visited him in Brooklyn or maintained a correspondence
with him. In the late 1970s, Rabbi Schneerson joined with other
organizations to orchestrate an exodus of Jews from countries such
Scientists who met with him, such
as Herman Branover, professor of physics at Ben-Gurion University
in Beer-Sheva, Israel, noted that he had a keen understanding of
scientific issues.
Schneerson rarely chose to involve
himself with questions of halakha (Jewish law). Some notable exceptions
were with regard to the use of electrical appliances on the Sabbath,
sailing on Israeli boats staffed by Jews, and halakhic dilemmas
created when crossing the International Date Line.
Schneerson rarely left Crown Heights
in Brooklyn, except for frequent lengthy visits to his father-in-law's
grave-site in Queens, New York. A year after the passing of his
wife in 1988, when the traditional year of Jewish mourning had passed,
he moved into his study above the central Lubavitch synagogue at
770 Eastern Parkway.
It was from this synagogue that Rabbi
Schneerson directed his emissaries' work. He would involve himself
in details of his far-flung movement's developments. The highlight
of his public role was displayed during special celebrations called
farbrengens ("gatherings") on Sabbaths, Jewish holy days,
and special days on the Chabad calendar, when he would give lengthy
sermons to crowds. They would often be broadcast via satellite and
cable television to Lubavitch branches all over the world.
Schneerson's devotion to his work
was unceasing: "He had never taken even a single day's vacation.
Aside from three day trips in the late 1950s to visit a Chabad children's
camp in the Catskill mountains, he had not once left the New York
City vicinity since 1951. Nor had he the slightest predilection
for acquiring material possessions. He and Chaya lived modestly
in their house near Eastern Parkway."
In 1977 Schneerson suffered a massive
heart attack while celebrating the hakafot ("circling"
[in the synagogue]) ceremony on Shmini Atzeret. Despite the best
efforts of his doctors to convince him to change his mind, he refused
to be hospitalized. This necessitated building a mini-hospital
in "770." Although he did not appear in public for many
weeks, he continued to deliver talks and discourses from his study
via intercom. On Rosh Chodesh Kislev, the first day of the Hebrew
month of Kislev, he left his study for the first time in over a
month to go home. His followers celebrate this day as a holiday
In 1983, on the occasion of his 80th
birthday the U.S. Congress proclaimed Rabbi Schneerson's birthday
Education Day, USA, and awarded him the National Scroll of honor.
As the movement grew and more demands
were placed on Schneerson's time he limited the practice of meeting
followers individually in his office. In 1986 Rabbi Schneerson replaced
these personal meetings, known as Yechidut, with a weekly receiving
line in "770". Almost every Sunday thousands of people
would line up to meet briefly with Schneerson and receive a dollar,
which was to be donated to charity. People filing past Schneerson
would often take this opportunity to ask him for advice or to request
a blessing. This event is usually referred to as "Sunday Dollars."
Following the death of Schneerson's
wife in 1988 he withdrew from some public functions; for example,
he stopped delivering addresses during weekdays, instead holding
gatherings every Shabbat. He later edited these addresses and
they have since been released in the Sefer HaSichos set.
In 1991, he declared to his followers:
"I have done everything I can (to bring Moshiach (the Jewish
Messiah)), now I am handing over to you (the mission); do everything
you can to bring Moshiach!" A campaign was then started to
bring the messianic age through "acts of goodness and kindness,"
and some of his followers placed advertising in the mass media,
such as many full-page ads in the New York Times urging everyone
to prepare for and hasten the messiah's imminent arrival by increasing
in their good deeds.
In 1991, Schneerson faced a riot
with anti-Semitic overtones in his neighborhood of Crown Heights
which became known as the Crown Heights Riot of 1991. The riot began
when a car accompanying his motorcade returning from one of his
regular cemetery visits to his father-in-law's grave accidentally
struck two African American seven-year-old children, killing one
boy. In the rioting, Australian Jewish graduate student Yankel Rosenbaum
was murdered, many Lubavitchers were badly beaten, and much property
was destroyed; also, blacks hurled rocks and bottles at the Jews
over police lines.
In 1992 Schneerson was felled by
a serious stroke while praying at the Ohel, the grave of his father-in-law.
The stroke left him unable to speak and paralyzed on the right side
of his body. Nonetheless, he continued to respond daily to thousands
of queries and requests for blessings from around the world. His
secretaries would read the letters to him and he would indicate
his response with head and hand motions.
Despite his deteriorating health,
Schneerson once again refused to leave 770. Several months into
his illness, a small room with tinted glass windows with an attached
balcony was built overlooking the main synagogue. This allowed him
to pray with his followers, beginning with the Rosh Hashana services
and after services, to appear before them by either having the window
opened or by being carried onto the balcony.
He died in 1994 at the Beth Israel
Medical Center, having finally agreed to hospitalization, unable
to verbalize and say anything to confirm or deny his followers'
longed-for dream that he be the actual long-promised Jewish Messiah.
However, some believe that he will be the Messiah, and that he will
lead the Jewish people to redemption, though this opinion is not
shared by the vast majority of his followers (see Chabad messianism.)
After his death, a bill was introduced
in the U.S. House of Representatives sponsored by Congressmen Chuck
Schumer, and cosponsored by John Lewis, Newt Gingrich, and Jerry
Lewis, as well as 220 other Congressmen, to bestow on Rabbi Schneerson
the Congressional Gold Medal. On November 2, 1994, the bill passed
both Houses by unanimous consent, honoring Rabbi Schneerson for
his "outstanding and enduring contributions toward world education,
morality, and acts of charity". Bill Clinton spoke these
words at the Congressional Gold Medal ceremony
“ The late Rebbe's eminence as a
moral leader for our country was recognized by every president since
Richard Nixon. For over two decades the Rabbi's movement now has
some 2000 institutions; educational, social, medical, all across
the globe. We, (The United States Government) recognize the profound
role that Rabbi Schneerson had in the expansion of those institutions.
The United States Congress and President
issue annual proclamations declaring that Schneerson's birthday,
usually a day in March or April that coincides with his Hebrew calendar
birth-date of 11 Nisan (a Hebrew month), be observed as Education
and Sharing Day in the United States
Schneerson was laid to rest on the
3rd of Tammuz 5754 (June 12, 1994), next to his father-in-law, the
sixth Rebbe, at Montefiore Cemetery in Queens, NY. The Ohel
is built over their graves. When entering the Ohel, the sixth Rebbe
is buried to the right, and the seventh Rebbe is buried to the left.
Established by philanthropist Rabbi Joseph Gutnick of Melbourne
(Australia), the Ohel Chabad-Lubavitch Center on Francis Lewis Boulevard,
Queens, NY is located adjacent to the Rebbes' Ohel.
There is considerable controversy within Chabad about Schneerson's
will. Some speculate that two wills exist. Family and supporters
of Rabbi Yehuda Krinsky claim that there exists a will signed by
Schneerson which transfers stewardship of all the major Chabad institutions
to Rabbi Yehuda Krinsky. Others argue that there is no proof
of such a will, and request that this will be made public if it
is to be accepted. The second will, the rumor goes, gave the bulk
of control to three senior Chabad rabbis, Rabbis Mindel, Piekarski,
and Hodakov (contemporary and secretary of Schneerson) and gave
Krinsky only a minor role. The only copy of this will, that was
drafted by others, is unsigned.
The first will, signed and dated
February 14, 1988, transferred power over all Schneerson’s property
and personal affects to Agudas Chasidei Chabad (AGUCH), naming Krinsky
as sole executor. Avrum Erlich, a Chabad chronicler and scholar
summarises the dispute:
“ After the [second] will was prepared,
Schneerson said he would look it over before signing it, and that
is apparently the last that was seen of it. Some Habad members believe
that Schneerson never signed this will. . . others believe that
even if the will was not signed, it is nevertheless indicative of
his general view. There are still others who believe that a signed
copy of the will exists, but was stolen from Schneerson’s drawer
and hidden by an interested party who hopes to gain by its destruction.
Chabad Hasidim believe that there
is no successor to Schneerson and all the suggested successors declined
the mantle of leadership in the days after his death. Chabad hasidim
believe that he is still their leader, guiding them from beyond
the grave through prayer and signs. There are those who believe
that he will return as the Messiah; this view has led to controversy
with other Orthodox groups and within Chabad itself. Some, quoting
Talmudic passages and statements that Schneerson himself made, refuse
to put the typical honorifics that Jews normally use for the dead
after his name.
Since the early 1950s some followers
have been claiming that Schneerson was the Messiah. Even after his
death, there are Chabad adherents who continue to argue that Schneerson
is to return as the Messiah. Chabad Messianism based around Schneerson
has been a major cause of fracture within the Chabad movement since
Furthermore, some followers believe
that he is able to influence the decisions of his followers even
after death and this is made most clear by the practice known as
"Igrot Kodesh", by which answers to questions are derived
through mystical consultation of the published collections of Schneerson’s
letters known as the Igrot Kodesh.
In general it is Chabad Lubavitch policy not to mix in to any politics,
however aspirants for the job of mayor, governor, congressman, senator,
in the states of New York and New Jersey would come calling and
have their pictures with the rebbe published in newspapers with
large Jewish readerships and voters. 
Schneerson predicted, paid close
attention to and rejoiced in the fall of communism in Eastern Europe
starting in 1989. Under the Bolsheviks his father-in-law had been
imprisoned and tortured and had his massive collection of writings
confiscated, and the movement banned on pain of exile to Siberia.
So too his father Rabbi Levi Yitzchock Schneerson was imprisoned
and sent to live in exile in Alma Ata. His father was never freed
and died in Alma Ata. Throughout the years of Communist repression
of religion, Schneerson maintained intensive contacts with an underground
network of his followers in the Soviet Union. Once
the Iron Curtain fell, he quickly sent hundreds of new emissaries,
known as shluchim, to the former Soviet Union.
Schneerson never visited the State of Israel, where he had many
admirers and critics. He held a view that according to Jewish law,
it was uncertain if a Jewish person who was in the land of Israel
was allowed to leave. One of Israel's presidents,
Zalman Shazar, who was of Chabad ancestry, and his visits to Rabbi
Schneerson were cordial. Menachem Begin, Ariel Sharon, and later
Benjamin Netanyahu also paid visits and sought advice, along with
other less famous politicians, diplomats, military officials, and
media producers. In the elections that brought Yitzhak Shamir to
power, Schneerson publicly lobbied his followers and the Orthodox
members in the Knesset to vote against the Labor alignment. It attracted
the media's attention and led to articles in Time, Newsweek, and
many newspapers and TV programs, and led to considerable controversy
within Israeli politics.
During the Six Day War in 1967 and
the Yom Kippur War of 1973, Schneerson publicly called for Israel
Defence Forces (IDF) to capture Damascus, Syria and Cairo, Egypt.
He was vehemently opposed to any IDF withdrawals from captured territories
and opposed any concessions to Arabs. He lobbied
Israeli politicians to pass legislation in accordance with Jewish
religious law on the question Who is a Jew and declare that "only
one who is born of a Jewish mother or converted according to Halakha
is Jewish." This caused a furor in the United States. Some
American Jewish philanthropies stopped financially supporting Chabad-Lubavitch
since most of their members were connected to Reform and Conservative
Judaism. These unpopular ideas were toned down by his aides according
to Avrum Erlich. "The issue was eventually quietened so as
to protect Habad fundraising interests. Controversial issues such
as territorial compromise in Israel that might have estranged benefactors
from giving much-needed funds to Habad, were often moderated, particularly
by. . . Krinsky." Rabbi Immanuel Jakobovits argued that
Habad moderated its presentation of anti-Zionist ideology and right-wing
politics in England and downplayed its messianic fervor so as not
to antagonize large parts of the English Jewish community.
Schneerson is known for delivering regular lengthy addresses at
packed public gatherings touching on all areas of Torah, without
using any notes. These talks usually centered around the weekly
Torah portion, and were then transcribed and distributed widely.
Many of them were later edited by him and distributed worldwide
in small booklets later to be compiled in the monumental Likkutei
Sichot set. (See choizer, meiniach.) He also authored a voluminous
collection of replies to requests and questions both from followers
and from non-followers. They touch on a wide array of topics. The
majority of his correspondence is printed in Igrot Kodesh (Hebrew
and Yiddish) and Letters from the Rebbe (English). His commentaries
fill more than two hundred published volumes.
In biblical scholarship he was known
for his achievements on the study of Rashi. He frequently used Rashi's
commentary in his discourses. In halachic matters he normally
deferred to members of the Crown Heights Beit Din headed by Rabbi
Zalman Shimon Dvorkin, and advised the movement to do likewise in
the event of his death.
^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Second Edition, Volume 18 page 149
^ About Chabad-Lubavitch
^ National Geographic Magazine February 2006
^ Chana Vilenkin, Zalman's daughter on "The Early Years Vol
I". Jewish Educational Media 2006, segment Nikolaev, Russia
1902. (UPC 874780 000525)
^ Introduction Lekutei Levi Yitzchak Kehot Publications 1970
^ Schneerson, Chana, A Mother in Israel Kehot Publications 1983
(ISBN 08266-00999)page 13.
^ a b c d e f Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 4
^ Larger Than Life, Deutsch, S. S., vol. 2, pp. 125–145.
^ Larger Than Life, Deutsch, S. S., vol. 1, pp. 101–103, and vol.
2, p. 118
^ Selegson, Michoel A. Introduction to From Day to Day, English
translation of the Hayom Yom (ISBN 08266-06695), Page A20.
^ (ISBN 0-9647243-0-8) Vol. II, p.134)
^ a b Kowalsky, Sholem B.. The Rebbe and the Rav. Chabad.org. Retrieved
^ A Relationship from Berlin to New York (Windows Media Video) [Documentary].
Brooklyn, NY: Chabad.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
^ a b The Rebbe in Berlin, Germany (Windows Media Video) [Documentary].
Brooklyn, NY: Chabad.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
^ Kowalsky, Sholem B. From My Zaidy's House. Israel Book Shop, 2003
(ISBN 097023600X) page 274.
^ "Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik and Abraham Joshua Heschel
on Jewish-Christian Relations" by Rabbi Reuven Kimelman
^ My Encounter with the Rebbe: The Early Years III (1938-1940),
Jewish Educational Media, 2007
^ Last Sea Route From Lisbon to U.S. Stops Ticket Sale to Refugees,
New York Times, March 15, 1941
^ a b Fishkoff, Sue. The Rebbe's Army, Schoken, 2003 (08052 11381).
Page 73. Milton Fechtor, Wiring the Missouri, Jewish Educational
^ Leadership in the HaBaD Movement, Avrum M. Ehrlich, Jason Aronson,
January 6, 2000, ISBN 076576055X
^ Shevat 10: A Day of Two Rebbes
^ Raddock, Charles, The Jewish Forum, April, 1951
^ Kranzler, Gershon, Jewish Life, Sept.-Oct. 1951.
^ Hoffman 1991, p. 45
^ Hoffman 1991, p. 46
^ Hoffman 1991, p. 47
^ Cheshbono Shel Olam, Binyomin Lipkin (Machon HaSefer, Israel,
2000) p. 79
^ Hasid Dies in Stabbing; Black Protests Flare 2d Night in a Row
By JOHN KIFNER New York Times (1857-Current file); Aug 21, 1991;
ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2003)pg.
^ The New York Times, June 13, 1994, p. A1
^  Public Law 103-457
"Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., 2003" by George W.
^ Cite error 8; No text given.
^ Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 18, note 14
^ a b Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 14 notes
^ Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 8
^ Ehrlich 2004, Chapter 15 (also see note 10 Ibid.)
Hoffman, Edward (1991). Despite all odds: the story of Lubavitch.
New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. LCCN 90-10115. ISBN 0671677039.
Ehrlich, Avrum M. (2004). The Messiah of Brooklyn: understanding
Lubavitch Hasidism past and present. Jersey City, NJ: KTAV Publishing.
LCCN 2004-14552. ISBN 0881258369. OCLC 55800922.
Books by Rabbi Schneerson
Rabbi Schneerson himself wrote and published only three books:
Hayom Yom - An anthology of Chabad
aphorisms and customs arranged according to the days of the year.
Haggadah Im Likkutei Taamim Uminhagim - The Haggadah with a commentary
written by Schneerson.
Sefer HaToldot - Admur Moharash - Biography of the fourth Lubavitcher
Rebbe, Rabbi Shmuel Schneersohn.
His personal notes and writings:
Reshimot - 10 volume set of Schneerson's
personal journal discovered after his passing. Includes notes for
his public talks before 1950, letters to Jewish scholars, notes
on the Tanya, and thoughts on a wide range of Jewish subjects.(2,190pp)
His talks and letters, transcribed by others and then edited by
Likkutei Sichos - 39 volume set of
Schneerson's discourses on the weekly Torah portions, Jewish Holidays,
and other issues. (16,867pp)
Igrot Kodesh - 28 volume set of Schneerson's Hebrew and Yiddish
Hadran al HaRambam - Commentary on Mishneh Torah.
Sefer HaSichot - 10 volume set of the Schneerson's talks from 1987-1992.
Sefer HaMa'amarim Melukot - 6 volumes of edited chassidic discourses.
Letters from the Rebbe - 5 volume set of Schneerson's English letters.
Chidushim UBiurim B'Shas - 3 volumes of novellae on the Talmud.
Unedited compilations of his talks and writings:
Sefer HaShlichut - 2 volume set of
Schneerson's advice and guidelines to the shluchim he sent.
Torat Menachem - 34 volume Hebrew set of unedited Maamarim and Sichos
currently spanning 1950-1962 (Approximately 4 new volumes a year).
Planned to encompass 1950-1981.
Sichot Kodesh - 60 some volume Yiddish set of unedited Sichos from
Torat Menachem Hitva'aduyot - 43 volume set of Sichos and Maamarim
from 1982-1992. (Based on participants' recollections and notes,
not proofread by Rabbi Schneerson.)
Sefer HaMa'amarim (unedited) chassidic discourses - Approx. 24 vols.
including 1951-1962, 1969-1977 with plans to fill the rest.
Biurim LePirush Rashi - 5 volume set summarizing his talks on the
commentary of Rashi to Torah.
Heichal Menachem - Shaarei - 34 volumes of a continuing series of
his talks arranged by topic and holiday.
Toras Menachem - Tiferes Levi Yitzchok - 3 volumes of elucidations
drawn from his talks on cryptic notes of his father.
Biurim LePirkei Avot - 2 volumes summarizing his talks on the Tractate
of the Mishna "Ethics of our Fathers".
Yein Malchut - 2 volumes of talks on the Mishneh Torah.
Kol Ba'ei Olam - Discources and letters concerning the Noahide Campaign.
Hilchot Beit Habechira L`haRambam Im Chiddushim U`Beurim - Talks
on the Laws of the Chosen House (The Holy Temple) of the Mishneh
HaMelech B'Msibo - 2 volumes of his discussions at the semi-public
Toras Menachem - Menachem Tzion - 2 volumes of talks on mourning.
Collections and esoterica:
Heichal Menachem - 3 volumes.
Mikdash Melech - 4 volumes.
Mekadesh Yisrael - Talks and pictures from his officiating at weddings.
Yemei B'Reshit - Diary of the first year of his leadership, 1950-1951.
Bine'os Deshe - Diary of his visit and talks to Camp Gan Israel
in upstate New York.
Esoterica continues to be released by individual families for family
occasions such as weddings.
Education and Sharing day